"Racial Strife seems universal where diverse races are placed in a single country.
"Strife can be minimized through dividing such countries into homogeneous nations."
In last week's lesson, we reviewed excerpts from an article written by an Economist from Harvard University arguing that when diverse ethnic or racial groups fall under a power of a single government, they tend to use the political process as a means of extracting advantages for their own group at the expense of others.
To avoid conflict, it sometimes makes sense to split countries into smaller, more racially homogeneous nations.
The economist then argued that many very small states are economically viable, and their formation should be encouraged. Students in the United States are rarely exposed to such ideas, nor are they taught just how universal ethnic strife is throughout the world.
The reading for this week consists of examples of racial strife from around the world collected from the pages of the Wall Street Journal and the Los Angeles Times over the 20 years preceding 1995. The list is by no means complete.
As you review these examples you may wish to consider the following questions:
1. How does one tell the good guy from the bad guy in these conflicts?
2. Are outnumbered races always the "good-guys" in these conflicts?
3. Is it a bit hypocritical to criticize "white racism" in America when there are so many examples throughout the world?
4. Is "white racism" stronger or milder than the versions practiced in other parts of the world?
5. Could the combination of intense criticism of "white racism" plus the extensive legal privileges or "quotas" for "non-whites" amount to a program of anti-white racial aggression?
6. Is it always true that majorities dominate minorities?
7. Can we view the Mandela government of South Africa as an effort by the minority Europeans and minority Xhosa to dominate the majority Zulu?
8. In Rwanda, how can the Tutsi, comprising only 10%, dominate the Hutu, comprising 90%?
9. Is it easier to figure out how the minority Kimbundu thwart the majority Ovimbundu in Angola?
10. Does the experience of the economically dominant Chinese living in Viet Nam and Malaysia, or Europeans in Nigeria suggest conclusions about economically dominant minorities living in "diaspora"?
Yggdrasil recommends that you read the following excerpts:
April 15, 1993 Wall Street Journal A1
Indian security forces killed eight suspected Muslim militants in the northern state of Jammu-Kashmir, and separatist guerrillas killed five people in retaliation, according to news reports.
Aug. 22, 1990 Wall Street Journal P1 C3
The Indian parliament approved presidential rule in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, and gave the armed forces special powers there, according to local radio reports. Indian officials said tanks and troop reinforcements were dispatched to the frontier with Pakistan, where soldiers from the two countries clashed this week.
* * *
Jan 12, 1993 Wall Street Journal A-1
Thousands of Muslims jammed a railway station in Bombay waiting to flee the city, where six days of Hindu-Muslim riots have killed at least 137 people. Police said 15 areas have been placed under curfew, and about 2,800 people have been arrested amid widespread looting and arson.
Dec 8, 1993 Wall Street Journal A1
Eight Hindu politicians were arrested after challenging the Indian government to take them into custody over the destruction of a 16th-century mosque in Ayodhya a year ago. The top officials of the nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party were arrested in Lucknow, capital of Uttar Pradesh state, where the disputed mosque is located.
Aug 24 1990 Wall Street Journal A10
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The largely Moslem people of Indian Kashmir are rebelling violently against the authorities in New Delhi. They complain that they were taken into India against their will in 1947 and that New Delhi has systematically rigged elections in the province to keep nationalists out of power. The Indian military is suppressing the rebellion in its usually bloody and incompetent way. Hundreds have been killed. Pakistan, which occupies a chunk of Kashmir itself, is, if not arming the rebels, at least turning a blind eye to arms smuggling.
It's exactly the same pattern as in the rich Indian province of Punjab. There too New Delhi goaded a religious minority, this time the Sikhs, into political extremism. The Sikh extremists committed horrible atrocities. The Indian government reacted even more atrociously. An ensuing anti-Sikh pogrom in New Delhi claimed 3,000 lives.
* * *
Jan 31, 1991 Wall Street Journal P1 C3
Sikh militants killed at least 23 people in India's northern state of Punjab as the government made another peace overture to the rebels, saying that it was willing to hold talks with Sikh leaders as early as March, news reports said.
Aug. 29, 1989 Wall Street Journal P1, C3
Sinhalese radicals brought nearly all businesses and transportation to a halt in most of Sri Lanka on the first day of a planned weeklong general strike. The radicals charge the Sinhalese-dominated government has granted too many concessions to ethnic Tamil rebels and hasn't done enough to force Indian troops to pull out.
Feb. 1, 1991 Wall Street Journal P1 C3
Riots erupted in India's southern state of Tamil Nadu as news spread of the imposition of direct presidential rule in the state, which has been accused of permitting gun-running by Sri Lankan rebels. Police said they arrested at least 1,000 people as violence broke out in the state capital, Madras, as well as other towns.
April 5, 1993 Wall Street Journal A1
Hundreds of Pakistanis defied army warnings and pressed toward the disputed Kashmiri border. The anti-Indian demonstrators were seeking to storm the Indian defended cease-fire line dividing Kashmir. The Pakistan government, fearing another confrontation with India, vowed to send troops to halt the marchers.
May 6, 1977 Wall Street Journal P1 C3
Pakistani troops fought a battle with mountain tribesmen who are holding several thousand Chinese road workers hostage to back demands for the resignation of Prime Minister Bhutto. The Associated Press said the clash killed five soldiers and 30 of the tribesmen, known as Kohistanis. The Chinese are building a highway through the mountainous Pakistani-Chinese border.
Mar. 24, 1992 Wall Street Journal P16 C1
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In northern Iraq, three heavily armed Iraqi divisions are reported to have resumed Saddam Hussein's genocidal assault against his Kurdish population. In neighboring Turkey, a new spate of violence began over the weekend, instigated by the Kurdish Workers Party and precipitating swift retribution from the Turkish security forces. Some 45 people lost their lives in the clashes in Turkey.
* * *
Aug. 30, 1989 Wall Street Journal P1 C3
The U.S. recalled its ambassador to Bulgaria for consultations in response to human rights abuses involving Bulgaria's ethnic Turkish minority. The State Department also said it may provide aid to help Turkey cope with 310,000 Bulgarian Turkish refugees who have fled across the border.
Sep. 4 1974 Wall Street Journal P1 C3
Turkish Premier Bulent Encivit warned that his country would take "serious measures" if Turkish Cypriots continued to be massacred. The number of civilians found in a grave in a Turkish Cypriot village Monday grew to 72. And a man from another village said he survived a separate mass execution by Greek Cypriots at the time of the Turkish invasion.
Aug. 8, 1990 Wall Street Journal P1, C3
Hundreds of people rampaged through Jerusalem, dragging Palestinians from their cars and beating them as mourners buried two Jewish teen-agers who were found stabbed to death Monday in a ravine near a village in the West Bank.
Mar 18, 1993 Wall Street Journal A1
Clashes continued in Israel as more Palestinians were wounded battling Israeli soldiers at a Gaza Strip refugee camp. West Bank settlers burned an Arab-owned gas station in further retaliation for the deaths of two settlers struck and killed by a car this week. Officials remain unsure whether the fatal incident was an accident or not.
Jan 24, 1994 Wall Street Journal A1
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The idea of peace between Israel and Palestinians may be in the air, but Israel's 800,000 Arab citizens - almost all living within Israel proper, not in the occupied territories - still feel like second-class citizens. Says Mr. Darawshe: "I'm not sure this government, or any other government, will ever give us real equality."
* * *
Jan. 19, 1976 Wall Street Journal P1 C3
LEBANON'S PREMIER QUIT as new fighting raged across the country. Rashid Karami, Lebanon's top Moslem official, gave up a seven- month effort to stop the vicious sectarian fighting that has taken an estimated 8,000 lives since last spring. "I have to announce that the government has no more effectiveness," Karami said in a broadcast speech announcing his resignation. Lebanon's Christian-dominated army recently defied Karami by attacking a Moslem camp.
Karami said he knew the government was powerless when he arranged a new cease-fire over the weekend and both sides violated it within an hour.
Christian forces demolished a Moslem and Palestinian slum neighborhood in Beirut, driving out its defenders in hand-to-hand fighting. Nearby, the Phoenicia Intercontinental hotel was set afire. Thousands of Druze Moslems and Palestinians besieged the Christian village of Saadiyet, 15 miles south of the capital, trapping Camille Chamoun, the interior minister and head of one Christian militia. At least 100 persons were killed.
* * *
Mar. 3, 1992 Wall Street Journal P1, C3
Yeltsin signed a decree that will allow ethnic Germans living in Russia to settle in two regions along the Volga River where their families had lived decades ago, according to news reports. The move is part of gradual rehabilitation of Germans who in 1941 were deported by Stalin to Siberia, Central Asia and Kazakhstan.
Mar. 25, 1991 Wall Street Journal p A11
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To the east, the Russian empire is disintegrating as Armenians, Azerls, Georgians, Moldavians, Ukrainians, and Uzbeks struggle successfully to loosen Moscow's grip on their republics.
Because of the untidy borders, no nation in this region lacks an aggrieved, and often oppressed-minority. Few parts of the world can claim more hostility among peoples living in close proximity to one another. Bulgaria, for example, has a large Turkish minority that was persecuted by the communists, causing an exodus to Turkey. Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Syria all have Kurdish minorities, who number some 20 million to 30 million people in all and retain a strong sense of national identity.
Moldavians in the Soviet Union consider themselves to be Romanians. Serbs look upon Serbs living in the borders of Croatia as kith and kin, and that could be a causus beli if Croatia persists in its efforts to separate from Yugoslavia. The Albanians who predominate in Yugoslavia's Kosovo province resent Serbian communist suzerainty, Hungarians in Romania chafe under the rule of Bucharest, where a "socialist" government retains many communist characteristics. Turks in Thrace are not especially happy about being a part of Greece. Then, of course, there are the Palestinian Arabs, who are second class citizens not just in Israel, but wherever they live, whether it be Syria, Kuwait or Jordan. Reading the news from this part of the world, one might get the idea that peace is impossible, that ancient hostilities will never die and that man's inhumanity to man will be the defining characteristic of the region for many years to come.
* * *
May 21, 1994 Los Angeles Times A8
TIBILISI, Georgia. Less than a week after the signing of a truce, Georgian troops battled Abkhazian separatists along the Inguri River in the breakaway province, the two sides reported Friday. More than 3,000 people have been killed and tens of thousands have become refugees since the fighting broke out in mid-1992, I when Georgian leader Eduard A. Shevardnadze sent troops to quell the separatist movement.
The Abkhazanis, an ethnic group that traces its lineage hack many centuries, want to become independent or possibly part of Russia.
* * *
April 5, 1993 Wall Street Journal A1
Armenian troops consolidated their control over Azerbaijan's western Kelbajar region in a significant turn in the five-year-old war for control of the Nagorno-Karabakh enclave. The fall of Kelbajar opened a second corridor from Armenia into Nagorno- Karabakh, an area in Muslim Azerbaijan that is populated mainly by Christian Armenians.
Mar 10, 1992 Wall Street Journal P1 C3
Violence erupted throughout the Caucasus region of the former Soviet Union, with troops under attack in Armenia, an explosion in western Georgia and militias pressing attacks in the disputed enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh. Former Soviet troops have come under attack throughout the region.
Mar. 4, 1992 Wall Street Journal P1 C3
Police in western Azerbaijan said they had recovered the bodies of 120 Azerbaijanis killed as they fled an Armenian assault in the disputed enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh and said they were being blocked from recovering more bodies. Armenian officials denied as a "gross exaggeration" claims that 1,000 died in last week's attack.
July 20, 1989 Wall Street Journal P1 C3
Soviet troops clashed with warring bands of Georgians and Abkhazians, as rioters attacked a hydroelectric dam in the Black Sea resort region of Abkhazia, official sources said. Explosives and firearms were confiscated during the ethnic violence.
* * *
Feb. 14, 1994 Wall Street Journal A1
* * *
This rocky peninsula in the Black Sea is one of such places as Kazakhstan and the Caucasus where the Soviets redrew borders and shuffled populations to fragment dissent, When the Soviet Union shattered in 1991 into 15 independent nations, the result was that many ethnic Russians were marooned in foreign states such as Ukraine.
Crimea is a natural target for Russia's acquisitive itch. Some 70% of Crimea's 2.5 million people are ethnic Russians, indeed, Crimea was part of Russia for the better part of two centuries after Catherine the Great pried it from the Turks in 1783.
Aug. 3, 1993 Wall Street Journal A1
North Ossetia's security chief blasted Ingush separatists for Sunday's slayings of the military governor and military commander of the disputed southern Russian region, where Russian troops are deployed.
Sep. 21, 1993 Wall Street Journal A1
Separatist fighters broke through the outer defenses of Sukhumi, capital of Georgia's breakaway Black Sea province of Abkhazia. The rebels demanded that the forces of the Shevardnadze government abandon the city, saying further resistance was useless. A night of missile attacks left houses along Sukhumi's shoreline in flames.
Aug 9, 1989 Wall Street Journal P1 C3
Lawmakers in Soviet Estonia approved a law tightening residency requirements for voting and running for office. The move was aimed at stemming the influence of the republic's Russian minority, which is about a third of the region's 1.6 million people. Some Russian workers briefly went on strike last month to protest the legislation.
Sep. 5 1989 Wall Street Journal P1 C3
In a separate ethnic dispute, Russian-speaking workers in the republic of Moldavia stayed away from their jobs to protest a law making Moldavian the official language.
Aug. 3, 1979 Wall Street Journal P8 C4
SAN SEBASTIAN, Spain - The Basques who live in the narrow valleys and on the conifer-covered mountains of northern Spain say they're different from the Spaniards who live on the sear brown plateaus in the south. They're generally taller and fairer than other Spaniards. They have their own strange language, their own dances, cuisine and flag.
* * *
Aug. 1, 1975 Wall Street Journal P1
Spanish police killed two suspected Basque terrorists in gunbattles in downtown Madrid, the worst such fighting in the Capital in years. Six policemen have lost their lives in clashes with Basque separatists of the northern provinces so far this year.
* * *
Feb. 23, 1976 Wall Street Journal P1 C3
Separatist violence In Spain's Catalan region continued despite a visit by King Juan Carlos Police in Catalonia and the Basque provinces broke up demonstrations for autonomy and better living conditions. The situation could become more tense soon, as the government is reported planning new luxury taxes and a rise in the price of gasoline.
Sep. 2, 1975 Wall Street Journal P1
Corsicans demanding home rule and an end to alleged oppression by French police called a 20-hour general strike, closing businesses and transportation.
* * *
Aug. 1, 1975 Wall Street Journal P1
Protestant vigilantes in Ulster killed three members of an Irish dance band returning to Dublin after a performance in Northern Ireland. Two of the Protestants also died when a bomb they were carrying exploded prematurely.
* * *
Nov. 20, 1975 Wall Street Journal P1
BRITAIN'S GOVERNMENT proposed partial self-rule for Scotland and Wales. Outlining legislation it will try to enact in a new session of Parliament, the ruling Labor Party moved to defuse independence movements by offering the Scots and Welsh regional assemblies. But the proposal, strongly opposed by many Conservative Party members of Parliament as well as some from the Labor Party, failed to satisfy nationalist lawmakers because it didn't include dates.
* * *
Mar. 23, 1992 Wall Street Journal P1 C4
MARSEILLE, France - The powerful showing of an ultra-right party in French elections yesterday has left outsiders struggling for explanations. How could Jean-Marie Le Pen's National Front, the xenophobic party that wants to throw foreign workers out of France, nearly outpoll the Socialist Party of France's president, Francois Mitterrand?
Feb. 7, 1977 Wall Street Journal P1 C3
Three Bombs damaged buildings in the Brittany area of France on the eve of a visit by President Giscard d Estaing. An outlawed group seeking autonomy for Brittany claimed responsibility for one of the blasts.
April 9, 1993 L.A. Times P1
ANTWERP, Belgium--In mainstream Flemish politics the Vlaams Blok's kick-out-the-immigrants policy remains beyond the pale. But in another manifestation--fierce disdain for the French-speaking half of Belgium--the Vlaams Blok's politics of exclusion is entirely acceptable.
The Viaams Blok favors a Czechoslovak solution for Belgium's regional rivalries. It would split Belgium into two nations, Flanders on the north and French speaking Wallonia on the south. Although the mainstream Flemish political parties stop short of demanding independence, they are engineering a highly decentralized Belgium.
* * *
Dec. 28, 1992 Wall Street Journal A-9
* * *
In Hungary, the incidents started with attacks by roving bands of teenage skinheads on Asian and African students and diplomats. Sometimes a European or American tourist who wasn't lily-white was beaten severely enough to require hospitalization. Others were harassed cursed and spit upon in the street or in railway stations.
* * *
Dec. 6, 1993 Wall Street Journal A1
A letter bomb blast injured Vienna's mayor, Helmut Zilk, who has been an outspoken proponent of minority rights in Austria. Zilk, 66, was rushed to the hospital with injuries to his left arm. Later, police defused another bomb sent to a legislator, bringing to six the number of explosive devices sent to human-rights activists since Friday.
March 31, 1975 Wall Street Journal P1
The Yugoslav vice consul in Lyon, France, was seriously wounded in an assassination attempt. Belgrade newspapers blamed a right- wing movement fighting for the secession of Croatia from Yugoslavia. The wounded diplomat is Laden Dugovic.
* * *
Jan. 4, 1993 Wall Street Journal A8
* * *
Kosovo is mythical to the hypernationalists directing the Serbian government and armies. Back in 1389, it was the heart of the medieval Serbian kingdom. In that year the flower of Serbian manhood fell in an epic battle with the Turks, and Serbia became part of the Ottoman Empire. The ensuing six centuries have not erased the grudge, but have decisively changed the population of Kosovo. By now 90% of its residents are preponderantly Muslim Albanians. "Ethnic cleansing" to re-establish the ancient Serbia would involve killing or displacing of some 1.6 million people. Precisely this dream, incredible as it seems to the non-Balkan mind, weighs heavily in Serbian politics. In 1990 Serbia revoked the region's local autonomy, abolished its parliament, killed 300 protesters, closed 2,000 Albanian shops and banned the use of Albanian in schools. The seething population is close to revolt. The independent Serbian newspaper Borba predicts violence soon in Kosovo.
* * *
Mar 4, 1992 Wall Street Journal p12 C1
* * *
Bosnia-Hercegovina, a poor, mountainous region of 4.2 million inhabitants, is a microcosm of what was formerly Yugoslavia. There is no such thing as a Bosnian-in either nationality or language. Muslim Slavs, who converted to Islam during 400 years of Ottoman rule, account for about 44% of the population. Orthodox Serbs make up 31% and Roman Catholic Croats 17% of the republic.
Long before it became part of the Yugoslav federation in 1918, the region was the center of fierce tugs of war between the competing Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires, and the Roman Catholic and the Byzantine churches.
* * *
Undated 1993 Article, WSJ A1
* * *
Then Czechs eliminated Germans. Eduard Benes, the pre-Communist postwar president, decreed their expulsion in 1945. At Potsdam, the Allies approved. As Germans fled toward Bavaria, Czechs took revenge: They murdered 40,000; many died at the end of a rope.
* * *
Dec. 31, 1992 Wall Street Journal A-1
* * *
Now Czechoslovakia, whose people seemed joyously united while toppling the Communist government three years ago, is splitting. "Europe, it is changing," shrugged Vladimir Meciar, the Slovak leader, who won an election last June after a populist campaign espousing Slovak independence. For the past six months, these two ambitious politicians have been managing the divorce caused by their irreconcilable differences over economic reform (the poorer Slovaks, their heavy Industries battered, want to go slower than the Czechs on privatization) and over Mr. Meciar's campaign to pull the Slovaks out from under the rule of Prague, the Czech capital.
* * *
Jan. 7, 1994 Wall Street Journal A1
MEXICO CITY - The uprising by ethnic Indians in the southern state of Chiapas has stirred up old problems - stark poverty, vast disparities in wealth, political corruption - at a critical time.
Sep. 27, 1990 Wall Street Journal P1 C3
A group of armed Mohawks surrendered to the Canadian Army, ending an 11-week siege that grew out of a land dispute in a town west of Montreal. The Indians had, been holed up in an alcohol treatment center, surrounded by soldiers and police.
* * *
Feb. 24, 1977 Wall Street Journal P20 C1
* * *
Prime Minister Trudeau correctly sees that Quebec nationalism is in many ways an attack on the liberal value system that has held together diverse societies such as Canada and the United States.
* * *
May 28, 1993 Wall Street Journal A1
Jury deliberations began in the retrial of a Miami police officer who shot a speeding black motorcyclist, igniting a 1989 race riot. The jury in the Orlando, Fla., manslaughter retrial will decide if the officer, William Lozano, 33, was criminally negligent or acted in self defense. His original conviction was overturned in 1991.
Dec. 14, 1993 Wall Street Journal A1
Racial segregation is spreading in U.S. public schools to a degree unseen since the 1960s, according to a study by the Harvard Project on School Desegregation. The study found that two of every three black children attended schools where minorities were more than half of the student population during the 1991-92 school term.
Sep. 17, 1993 Wall Street Journal A1
Indians pushed their way into Brazil's Congress to protest constitutional reforms that could halt the demarcation of indigenous areas. The Indians fear that if the lands aren't marked off they will be taken over by miners, loggers and ranchers. The Yanomami tribe has alleged that miners killed over a dozen Indians in July.
Mar. 1, 1978 Wall Street Journal P1 C3
Nicaraguan Indians battled government troops and tanks with handguns and homemade bombs in Masaya, pledging to fight for "liberation" from the regime of President Somoza. In Managua, the rector of Ruben Dario University denounced the government for "brutal aggression" after troops stormed the campus. At least 22 persons have died in political violence in the past three days.
Nov. 26, 1975 Wall Street Journal P1
Surinam became independent of the Netherlands, which got the territory on the Caribbean coast of South America from the British 300 years ago in a trade for Manhattan island. The new nation is rich in natural resources but plagued by poverty and racial conflict that has prompted 100,000 residents of East Indian ancestry to flee to Holland. Premier Hench Arron heads the government.
* * *
Aug. 4, 1994 Los Angeles Times A5
5 French Citizens Slain in Algeria; Militants Blamed
ALGIERS--Three French military guards and two French consular workers were shot dead here Wednesday in an attack blamed on a Muslim insurgency that is targeting foreigners.
April 14, 1993 Wall Street Journal A14
* * *
Mr. Savimbi spoke the values of his American supporters, while the MPLA called itself the Leninist vanguard. For the people of Angola, though, the battle was palpably one of race, ethnicity and the perquisites of control. Angola is a vast territory, and ranks near the bottom of the scale ethnologists use to measure ethnic homogeneity. Mr. Savimbi's followers, the Ovimbundu, inhabit the remote and forested provinces of south and central Angola. The Soviet sponsored MPLA was the party of Luanda's Portuguese- educated intellectuals. Though largely white or mestizo, they had their populist allies, the Kimbundu people, whose ethnic hinterland lies to the north and east of the capital.
* * *
Dec 17, 1993 Wall Street Journal P1
Dozens of decomposing bodies lined a mile-long stretch of railway outside Congo's capital, Brazzaville, according to witnesses who escaped from the fierce ethnic fighting that erupted a week ago. The official death toll was 81, but police officers said the actual count was much higher.
* * *
Dec 17, 1993 Wall Street Journal P1
An Islamic group claimed responsibility for slaying 12 Christian Croat and Bosnian technicians Tuesday in Algeria, saying the attack was to avenge the killing of Muslims in Bosnia and to drive foreigners from the country. In other violence, a senior judge was shot dead yesterday in Algiers.
Jul 31, 1993 Los Angeles Times A3
* * *
After one false start, Ronald Muwenda Mutebi II is expected to be crowned today the 36th kabaka (king) of Buganda, homeland of the Baganda people. His coronation will be a largely symbolic restoration of the dynasty that ruled Uganda's most powerful kingdom for nearly six centuries.
While other African nations are turning to democracy, Uganda is reviving its traditional monarchies in a nostalgic mood that supporters say will ease tribal and ethnic tensions. For many Bagandans, Uganda's largest ethnic group, the kabaka represents a return to civility after the brutal dictatorship of Idi Amin and former President Milton Obote.
* * *
Feb. 15, 1994 Wall Street Journal A1
Ethnic fighting in Ghana has grown into a virtual guerrilla war over the past two weeks that has killed hundreds, and perhaps thousands, of people and destroyed dozens of villages in the north, military officials said. The attacks have been carried out with poisoned arrows, machetes and automatic weapons, the officials added.
Aug 22, 1990 Wall Street Journal A8
* * *
South Africa, we pointed out, has four major and 23 minor languages. The largest group, the Zulus, consists of about 200 tribes. There are 11 other black ethnic groups. The second largest is the Xhosa. Nelson Mandela and his wife, Winnie, come from aristocratic Xhosa families.
* * *
Aug 23, 1990 Wall Street Journal P1 C3
The death toll rose to over 500 in 10 days of street clashes in South African black townships near Johannesburg, police said, as the violence spread to Vosloorus and Kagiso townships. The fighting pits Zulus loyal to the conservative Inkatha movement against Xhosas, most of them supporters of the African National Congress.
* * *
April 2, 1993 Wall Street Journal A1
Two white South Africans were set afire and killed in a black township near Cape Town and a third was in serious condition after part of his tongue was cut off, police said. The violence flared after Saturday's slaying of a black leader, Chris Hani, apparently by a white right-winger. At least one black man was killed in a clash with police.
May 19, 1976 Wall Street Journal P1 C3
Thousands of Ethiopian peasants recruited by the army and armed with old rifles began moving toward the northern province of Eritrea for a government showdown with the separatist guerrillas in that largely Moslem region. But the guerrillas reportedly blew up five bridges along the march route. They apparently have rejected concessions that the government offered last week in an effort to end the 14-year independence campaign.
Aug. 9, 1977 Wall Street Journal P1 C3
Ethiopia said the Ogaden Desert conflict has escalated into full- scale war with Somalia-and vowed to punish the aggressor. A special Organization of African Unity conference on the issue again stalled as Somali delegates walked out. They claim Somali backed guerrillas hold 90% of the ethnically Somali Ethiopian region but deny their regulars are fighting.
March 25, 1975 Wall Street Journal P1
Three guerrillas in Somalia who kidnapped the French ambassador Sunday night said they will release him only if France frees two of their imprisoned colleagues and provides $100,000 and an escape plane. They want to be flown to South Yemen. The guerrillas seek independence from France for the Afars and Issas territory on the northeast African coast.
* * *
March 7, 1974 Wall Street Journal P1
A massacre in a Chad town 300 miles south of Ndjamena, capital of the African nation, may have left as many as 800 persons dead, diplomats said. Christian and animist adherents in Moundou reportedly killed hundreds of Moslems in a rampage touched off by rumors of an Islamic plot to seize power.
* * *
Mar. 29, 1978 Wall Street Journal P1 C3
South-West African police turned back hundreds of Herero tribesmen seeking to avenge the murder of pro-South African Chief Clemens Kapuuo, who was a likely first president of independent Namibia. Their target was the rival Ovambo tribe, which largely supports the pro-Soviet South-West African Peoples Organization, blamed for the shooting.
May 21, 1994 Los Angeles Times A19
BIRENGA, Rwanda-- It is impossible to verify who was responsible for the slaughters, but those who escaped say it was militiamen from the majority Hutu tribe who attacked with the intent of leaving no survivors. Tutsis--the minority tribe leading the rebel movement--were the main target, survivors said. But any villages resisting the militias or considered sympathetic to the rebels were hit, they said.
June 2, 1976 Wall Street Journal P4 C1
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The plight of the Witnesses is closely bound up with the wider persecution and harasment of unpopular minorities in Third World nations, not just religious minorities but ethnic and racial minorities as well. Some 50,000 Asians were expelled from Uganda, 30,000 Portuguese, Pakistanies and Greeks were expelled from Zaire, another 10,000 Europeans were forced out of Ethiopia after the military junta seized their enterprises. And Tanzania's President Nyerere frankly warned white settlers they were unwelcome in his country.
* * *
July 12, 1976 Wall Street Journal P1 C3
LAGOS - Nigerian authorities said they have decided to curtail the freedom of residence of foreign - chiefly Western - businessmen and that only top officials of foreign companies operating in this western African nation will be allowed to reside here. A Lagos radio announcement said lower-ranking foreign employes of foreign business concerns will be granted only temporary permits to force these companies to replace them with Nigerian nationals.
May 8, 1979 Wall Street Journal P1 C1
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It isn't an ordinary race problem. The Malays, on the one hand, have nearly half the population and most of the political power, yet they have very little of the money. The Chinese, on the other hand, are a minority and hold very little power, yet they have most of the money.
The Malays find themselves in an enviable position for economic underdogs: They can do something about it. With the government under their control, the Malays set about adjusting their anomalous situation a few years ago with an affirmative-action program so forceful it would probably astound black activists in the U.S.
May 30, 1978 Wall Street Journal P6 C1
HONG KONG--Relations between Asia's two largest Communist powers, China and Vietnam, have deteriorated sharply, with the erstwhile allies against the U.S. trading charges regarding Vietnam's treatment of its ethnic Chinese minority.
China says it has had to resettle in southern China more than 90,000 Chinese "refugees" who have been "driven out" of Vietnam since early April.
* * *
Aug 19, 1975 Wall Street Journal P1
Moslem rebels in the Philippines who have been fighting for self- rule for three years denied that they had authorized anyone to negotiate a cease-fire. The Philippine government said last week it had reached a truce with the group.
* * *
Dec. 27, 1976 Wall Street Journal P1 C3
The Philippine government, attempting to end a guerrilla war by Moslem secessionists in the southern islands, agreed to hold a plebiscite on forming an autonomous Moslem region within the predominantly Roman Catholic country. Moslems would be able to organize their own legislature, courts and schools. Guerrillas and the government reached a cease-fire three days ago.
Dec. 29, 1993 Wall Street Journal A1
Suspected Christian militants fired grenades at two mosques, and gunmen kidnapped an American as violence again rocked the Philippine city of Davao. The mosque attacks apparently were in reprisal for a bombing that killed seven at a cathedral Sunday. A senator warned of reignition of Muslim-Christian clashes of the 1970s.
Aug 26, 1975 Wall Street Journal P1
Refugees from Timor, a Portuguese colony in the Pacific that is embroiled in civil war, said more than 200 persons had been killed in fierce fighting that wrecked much of the capital city of Dili. A leftist independence group wanting to cut all ties with Portugal at once appeared to be in control of the city. About 1,400 persons have been evacuated by ship so far.
* * *
Mar. 9, 1992 Wall Street Journal P1 C3
A Muslim region in China announced a crackdown on subversive activities, according to an official news report. The leader of the western Xinjiang Autonomous Region charged that a "handful" of secessionists and outsiders are engaging in sabotage.
Aug. 24, 1987 Wall Street Journal 15
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Moreover, population transfer has been China's preferred means for absorbing conquered territory: In Manchuria, the ratio of Chinese to Manchus is 35 to 1; in Mongolia it's five Chinese to every Mongolian. Behind the Disney World diorama of rebuilt monasteries and caretaker monks intended to offset international criticism while attracting the tourists Beijing hopes will support its growing community-Tibet, as a returned Western aid worker ruefully noted, "is finished."
If so, the final blow will come from Chinese apartheid. Rampant unemployment on top of an annual inflation rate of 300% has rendered Tibet's annual per-capita income just $110. Not only does this represent one of the poorest incomes on the planet, it is two-thirds less than that of a Chinese settler there. Living in antiquated houses often lacking heat, running water or electricity, tibetans have an average life span of 40 years and an infant mortality rate of one in six. Seventy percent of the adults remain illiterate; only one in five children completes primary school.
In contrast, Chinese immigrants receive guaranteed jobs and modern housing. Up to two-thirds of the limited school seats are reserved for their offspring, while sufficient diet and medical care is provided to make their average life span 25 years longer than that of Tibetans.
The Sinocization of Tibet is no more accidental than its military occupation. Given the region's chronic unrest, typified by ongoing executions of political dissidents, the internment of almost 4,000 political prisoners in the capital city of Lhasa, and the presence of one Chinese soldier for every 10 Tibetans in central Tibet alone, Sinocization is the requisite corollary to open force; a subtle but effective means to submerge the identity of Beijing's most intransigent subject race.
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BY BARRY NEWMAN
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The Northern Territory reserves its racism for the Aborigines. Down the track, toward Australia's "red heart," there has always been trouble between "black fellas" and "white fellas." With passage last year of a Land Rights Act and a push by Aborigines to win a slice of uranium revenues, things have gotten worse. A "rights for whites" group has been formed in Katherine. An Aborigine was pistol-whipped in Pine Creek.
"The whites," says a Darwin political worker, "have visions of groveling in the dust before a naked savage holding a spear." Territorians claim their trepidation about Asians tying up their boats and strolling ashore aren't racially defined, even though it's been only 13 years since the country as a whole abandoned the "White Australia Policy" that had kept Asian immigration to a minimum since 1901.
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