"Co-operation and unity give strength to a team or tribe; but why did neighboring tribes refuse so stubbornly to amalgamate? If united, they would have got rid of competition and struggle. Why do human tribes instinctively repel every thought of amalgamation, and prize above all things independence,the control of their destiny, their sovereignty? Here we have to look beneath the surface of things and formulate a theory to explain tribal behavior. How does a tribe fulfill an evolutionary purpose? A tribe is a 'corporate body,' which Nature has entrusted with an assortment of human seed or genes, the assortment differing in some degree from that entrusted to every other tribe. If the genes are to work out their evolutionary effects, then it is necessary that the tribe or corporation should maintain its integrity through an infinity of generations. If a tribe loses its integrity by a slackening of social bonds, or by disintegration of the parental instincts, or by lack of courage or of skill to defend itself from the aggression of neighboring tribes, or by free interbreeding with neighbors and thus scattering its genes, then that tribe as an evolutionary venture has come to an untimely end. For evolutionary purposes it has proved a failure."
And continuing on page 25 of Ethics:
"A good tribesman clings to his fellows and tells them the truth; he repels men of neighboring tribes and tells them lies. The real problem which faces us is this: How can the duality of human nature be explained? The evolutionist can offer an explanation which is agreeable to reason; the theologian has to appeal to superstition for an answer.
"It is only when we realize the conditions under which the later stages of the evolution of man were carried out that we come by a clue to the duality of his mental nature. Conceive, for a moment, what these conditions were. Throughout all the final stages of our evolution, mankind throughout the whole earth was segregated into small local communities or tribes. This was certainly so during the entire Pleistocene period, which at a moderate estimate endured for half a million years - perhaps a million. Tribalism was everywhere down to the beginnings of the fifth millennium B.C., when somewhere in southwest Asia agriculture was discovered, town-building and detribalization set in, and the era of civilization began. Tribalism was Nature's method in bringing about the evolution of man. I have already explained what a tribe really is - a corporation of human beings entrusted with a certain capital of genes. The business of such a corporation is to nurse and develop its stock of genes - to bring them to an evolutionary fruition. To reach such an end a tribal corporation had to comply with two conditions: (1) it had to endure for a long age; (2) it had to remain intact and separate from all neighboring and competing tribes. Human nature was fashioned or evolved just to secure these two conditions - continuity through time and separation in space. Hence the duality of man's nature - the good, social, or virtuous traits serving intratribal economy; the evil, vicious, or antisocial qualities serving the intertribal economy and the policy of keeping its genes apart. Human nature is the basal part of the machinery used for the evolution of man. When you know the history of our basal mentality - one fitted for tribal life - do you wonder at the disorder and turmoil which now afflict the detribalized part of the world?"
"When history raises the curtain on Germany, in the century which preceded the dawn of Christianity, we find her population divided into some forty independent tribes, warring with each other and with the outside world. No doubt the tribes which the Romans met with, or heard of, represented federations or compulsory amalgamations of earlier smaller tribes. If Germany had been like the rest of Europe before the practice of agriculture reached her, which was late in the fourth millennium B.C., her territory must have been divided among some 150 or 200 small local tribes or communities. Thus, when our historical record begins, modern evolutionary progress, as indicated by reduction in number and increase in size of tribal units, had made a very considerable advance. In the centuries which followed the Roman period local self-determination must have flourished, for by the seventeenth century there were 250 independent states established within the frontiers of what is now modern Germany. In the eighteenth century, under the sword of Frederick the Great, the number was reduced, mainly by the absorptive power and capacity of Prussia, so that in 1814 they numbered thirty-nine. By 1871, under Bismarck, only twenty-five states retained their independence. With the coming of Hitler and the establishment of the Third Reich, in 1933, Germany suddenly emerged as a unitary state - a single tribe or nation numbering over eighty millions, with a single leader and a central government;"
He notes that the tribal mentality, and the dual code by which mankind operates, was transferred to nations as a result of the amalgamation of tribes. As he states on page vii of his preface to Ethics:
"My second theme relates to the current conception of race and of nation. Most of my colleagues regard a nation as a political unit, with which anthropologists have no concern; whereas I regard a nation as an "evolutionary unit," with which anthropologists ought to be greatly concerned. The only live races in Europe today are its nations."
He uses as a modern example the case of Finnish resistance to Russia in 1939-1940 to illustrate the dual code and its meaning in the context of modern European nations. Beginning on page 32:
"Let us see if we can obtain a reasonable explanation of the state of mind which had been roused in the people of Finland by certain demands made on their country by powerful Russia. At first there was no threat against the corporate life of the Finns; they were requested to surrender certain strong points which were coveted by Russia for defensive purposes. Now, suppose the ultimate purpose of human existence had been such as we have passed in review - the development of personality, the provision of greatest happiness to the greatest number, the growth of the soul, glorification of the Creator, security, peace, prosperity; then the Finns ought gratefully to have accepted the demands of Russia. Could not all of these objectives in life have been developed more freely and fully under the protection of Russia than under the weaker power of the smaller state? We receive no explanation from the accepted theories of life. But if we turn to the theory that I have put forward - namely, that human nature has been fashioned to advance the cause of evolution - then we obtain a ready and sufficient explanation. An evolutionary unit, be it a community, tribe, or a nation, must, to fulfill its destiny, maintain not only its organization and its continuity, but also its independence - its right to work out its own destiny. If a nation loses its independence, then it has no longer the power to develop its separate destiny or to pursue the policy of self-determination. Thus I regard the spirit of independence which we have seen roused in the hearts of the Finnish people as a fundamental part of the machinery of human evolution."
"What a world to look out on! The frontiers behind which sixty nations, tribes beyond number, and races are now entrenched have vanished; the earth below is as free as the sky above; among the peoples there is no longer any color bar; a common tongue has swept through the earth as in the palmy days of Babel. Tariff walls have been overthrown; there are no passports, no dues, no patriotism, for every living soul is a citizen of the world, free to come and go, free to trade as needs compel or moods suggest. There are no armies, no navies, for there is no longer any warlike spirit in human nature. Only a central airborne police to see that the one universal code of law is observed. There will be no competition, no rivalry, and hence no malice, envy, or evil ambition. Jerusalem shall take her place as the world's capital - a center of power and uplift, in touch with all communities. One state, one government, one law, and one God."
"Universalism as an ideal is as old as - nay, is probably much more ancient than - the Christian ideal. Yet see how different they are in penetrating power. Christianity has a momentum of its own which has carried it over a large part of the earth's surface; Universalism has no drive, no momentum; it is not contagious; it has behind it no missionary enthusiasm. And yet this strange fact remains: Universalism, not as an ideal but as a political practice, has been and is at work in all parts of the earth. Nowhere is Universalism welcomed and encouraged by a people; everywhere governments have forced and are forcing Universalism upon unwilling and resistant subjects. There is something in the Universalist ideal which runs against the grain of human nature. Force and fear are the driving power behind this regional kind of Universalism. Love and brotherhood have had no part in its spread."
"And yet as I make this statement I recall Von Luschan's aphorism: 'There are no savages, only people whose cultures differ from ours.' It will be nearer to stark reality to say: In the world of humanity there are only savages, who differ in the degree to which they have masked their original nature in the cloak of civilization."
And, of course, the World's political elites are the very most aggressive, deceptive and savage of us all.
"Huxley condemned Universalism; it was an illusion. More than a century earlier J. J. Rousseau gave an equally unsparing verdict; 'it was a veritable chimera.' But the reasons they gave for their condemnation were not the same. Huxley's judgment was founded on the belief that no sooner would Universalism be established than evolution would again raise her hoary head, pitting local group against local group, and that soon mankind would reassume its evil evolutionary ways. Rousseau's reason was very different. For him nationalism was the source of all that is good: If people would be virtuous … let them love their own country … If it is a home for everyone … It is a home for no one.' * * * A uniform Universalist system of schools could do much in the attaining of such ideals, but the old instincts would be merely suppressed, not eliminated. To eliminate them, and so secure stability for the Universalist State, breeding and marriage must be controlled everywhere so that individuals of a warlike spirit, individuals who are evolutionary - minded - that is, competitive, combative, strong-willed, ambitious. or jealous - are prevented from handing on their qualities to the coming generation. In this way mankind could be domesticated, tamed, and made suitable subjects for a Universal state. If we desire universal peace we must be prepared to surrender our evolutionary birthright. I for one would prefer to keep my birthright and use the gifts which Nature has given me for its maintenance, the chief of which is courage - courage and self-sacrifice."
Amen! Brother Arthur!
"Social animals have within their natures a Mount Sinai which issues commandments as they are required; human nature issues, not commands, but requests, and these are of varying degrees of urgency. Some are imperative, such as, 'Thou shalt preserve thy life'; 'Thou shalt mate'; 'Thou shalt not treat thy friends as thou dost thine enemies.'"
By 1998, the organs of mass popular culture in the West have caused many Euro-Americans to abandon commandments 2 and 3, thereby putting at risk the only time tested strategy for fulfilling the first.
"Since the days of ancient Greece until now there have been philosophers who maintain that the purpose of human life is to develop personality to its fullest possible degree; that every child is born to bring to full stature the potentialities of its mind and body. If it fails, then the purpose of life has failed or been misused. We may go to the writings of the late Professor L. T. Hobhouse for a modern statement of the personality theory' of life: 'The good for each man lies in the realization of what is in him … but only as far as the common good makes this possible … the rights of each are such as it is good for all to maintain.'"
Following on page 20 of Ethics:
"Carlyle's statement is more emphatic and no doubt reflects his acquaintance with German philosophy: The meaning of Life here on earth might be defined as consisting in this: 'to unfold your self, to work what thing you have a faculty for. It is a necessity for the human being, the first law of our existence.'
"Huxley was of opinion that the mystery of life lay beyond the reach of the human intellect, but nevertheless in his Romanes Lecture touches on the matter with which we are now dealing. The passage runs: 'Creation of conditions more favorable than those of the state of Nature… to the end of facilitating the free expansion of the innate faculties of the citizen so far as it is consistent with the general good.'"
From page 21 of Ethics:
"Let me give, as briefly as I may, the names of famous men who have regarded the development of personality as the purpose of existence. Aristotle: 'Now with us reason and intelligence are the end of Nature.' Dante: 'Right constitutions work for freedom in order that men may exist for their own sakes.' Kant: … 'not happiness … but the evolution of all the germs God has implanted in man's nature.' The Marquis of Halifax (1633-95): 'The free development of human personality is the purpose of earthly existence.... Free-will is the method deliberately chosen by God.' Herbert Spencer: 'Social life will have no other end than to maintain the completest sphere for individual life.' 'Man exists in order that he may develop his soul' is a theological explanation of life's purpose. As 'soul' is a component of personality, the theological explanation falls within the present category."
Sir Arthur has a response on page 25 of Ethics:
"What, then, is the explanation which the student of human evolution has to offer as a final purpose for man's existence? It is not, as the Victorian scientists thought, to permit the individual man or woman to develop his latent potentialities; but to permit a closed society, be it tribe or nation, to develop its collective potentialities of brain and of body as an evolutionary unit. It is only when we make the assumption that evolution aims at the production of societies - not of individuals that we come by a satisfying explanation of man's dual mentality, and the constituent elements of human nature."
"Putnam, a Harvard professor of international affairs, says solo bowling is a sign of the erosion of social capital.' More Americans than ever are bowling. Almost 80 million bowled at least once in 1993, nearly a third more than voted in the 1994 congressional elections. But although the number of bowlers is up 10% since 1980, participation in leagues is down 40%. Putnam calls 'whimsical' this evidence of 'social decapitalization,' but there is nothing trivial about the cumulative weight of his evidence of declining civic engagement and social connectedness. Since 1973, the number of Americans who report having attended in the past year a public meeting on town or school affairs has declined from 22% to 13%. Union membership has fallen from 32.5% of the non-agricultural work force in 1953 to about 15% today. Participation in parent-teacher associations has declined from 12 million in 1964 to 7 million today.
"The technological transformation of leisure--the movement, as it were, from vaudeville to the VCR--has had an isolating effect. So have some demographic changes--more divorces, fewer children. But these factors do not fully explain the broad decline in organizational memberships in recent decades. This has happened, Putnam notes, at a time when the personal attributes that used to correlate with group involvements--higher education, middle age--have increased.
"'The repotting hypothesis' blames mobility. Frequent repotting of plants damages roots, and frequent changes of residence--blame economic dynamism, the automobile, suburbanization--produce a deracinated population. But residential stability and home ownership are higher today than in the 1950s, when voting and membership in voluntary associations were higher than today.
"America has been well-served by the individualism of its political philosophy and economic practice. Liberty and prosperity are individualism's fruits. And American individualism has traditionally been compatible with the joining impulse that produced a rich broth of private intermediary institutions that mediate between the individual and government. 'Such networks of attachments breed habits of trust that are part of the social capital' that makes possible cooperation for mutual benefits. Such cooperation sustains a free society. Social trust and civic engagement are strongly correlated. Therefore, given the decline of engagement, the following is not surprising: The percentage of Americans saying that most people are trustworthy fell from 58% to 37% between 1960 and 1993."
Without Sir Arthur's insights, conservatism is powerless to change the course of human events.
"There is one point about the constitution of Hindu castes and tribes which is particularly worthy of note: they are destitute of the means of offering a physical defense; they are not clad in a robe of enmity. Now, a tribe or caste which is not organized for defense could not survive unless it is protected by an overlord or governing power. We may conclude, therefore, that castes did not come into existence in India until large areas of that country were under the dominion of an invading power which brought with it a new religion."
"The presence of four legions ensured the conditions necessary for the growth of civilization -viz., security of life and property and a code of laws was maintained and administered by governors and magistrates. Roads were made; cities, built on the Roman pattern, replaced ramshackle tribal towns; arts and crafts were introduced; trade flourished; native produce was carried to the Continent; luxuries, literature, and vice came back in exchange. Native youths of promise were taught in Latin; they learned to wear the toga, acquired with zest the Roman ways of life, and merged their British nativity in the wider fraternity of the Empire.
* * *
The Latium tribe (the Romans) disappeared as well. Sir Arthur writes of them on pages 96-97 of Ethics:
"Gibbon was content, like Plato, to look upon peasant, artisan, and laborer as existing to form a mighty plinth on which a minority is superimposed in order that it might enjoy the blessings of civilization. Look at the size and composition of the Roman plinth in the time of the Emperor Claudius. Gibbon estimates that the population of the Empire was then 120 million; Over 100 millions should go to form the plinth, and probably one-third of these were slaves representing races alien to Italy. Now, a social pyramid such as that erected by the Romans may serve as an excellent structure for the growth of civilization, but as a structure designed to carry a great people onward in its evolutionary journey, it is as badly constructed as is anthropologically possible. It is not top-heavy; it is worse - it is bottom-heavy. A social pyramid which is to endure must be made up of individual human units, preferably of common racial origin, who, from bottom to top of the pyramid, are conscious of a common evolutionary destiny and work together to attain it. The Roman Empire may now provide scholars with a harvest; it provides only warning to the evolutionary-minded anthropologist."
"Even America, which has had a significant Jewish presence for only the last century, has been enormously influenced by Jews. The theater critic Walter Kerr, writing as early as 1968, demonstrated the integration of Jews into the mainstream American life by describing not Jewish acculturation to gentile culture, but rather gentile adaptation to Jewish patterns of thought: 'What has happened since World War II is that the American sensibility itself has become part Jewish, perhaps nearly as much Jewish as it is anything else. … The literate American mind has come in some measure to think Jewishly, to respond Jewishly. It has been taught to, and its was ready to. After the entertainers and novelists came the Jewish critics, politicians, theologians. Critics and politicians and theologians are by profession molders: they form ways of seeing.' Today this influence is even more apparent, as individual Jews dominate television, film, book publishing, newspapers, magazine advertising, public relations, and other opinion-shaping businesses. Professor Sylvia Barack Fishman of Brandeis University titled a November 1996 article U.S. 'Culture Has Been Judaized, and Vice Versa.' She calls this process the 'coalescence of two cultures.'"
And Dershowitz points out that more than 50% of Jews marry non-Jews, meaning that the odds that a secularized or Reform Jew (80% of the present total) will have Jewish grandchildren is close to nil. The class of White Gentile that has assimilated to Jewish patterns of thought is selecting Jewish marriage partners and vice versa. Herrenstein and Murray warn in the "The Bell Curve" that this new elite of Jews and those assimilated to Jewishness (our "Central Elite") is more isolated from the mainstream of its host culture than any elite in history. But this real message of "The Bell Curve" has been summarily rejected by its intended audience.
"Of all the peoples engaged in the present war the Japanese are the most consistent exponents of the doctrine of evolution as applied to human affairs. Their national organization is that of a single tribe; they represent the perfect evolutionary unit. They regard their emperor as divine; they worship by offering him their loyalty; their religion and patriotism are one. They are both ambitious and exclusive. No people give their lives so resolutely in their country's cause."
So how are we to rate this new emerging race - this Central Elite? Can it last?
"The care and upbringing of children has been safeguarded by one of the strongest of inborn emotions-that of maternal love. Maternal care is supplemented by the inborn partiality a father has for his own children. So omnipotent are the parental impulses that they may be said to enslave mothers and fathers for the best part of their lives in the service of their children. Child-rearing may be regarded as the chief industry of every social community; if this industry fails in a group, then that group passes out of existence. The process of evolution permits no balking of the reproductive instincts; the infertile groups are rigorously eliminated, and the fertile perpetuated. The parental duties which prevail among human beings are particularly onerous, owing to the prolonged period during which children must be cared for and fed. Just for that reason human parental impulses have a compelling potency.
"A group of primitive humanity may be regarded as a cradle for the young; the cradle is filled by the working of those elements of human nature just specified. The sole duty of group government is to protect the cradle; to this duty a group is always on the alert. Nothing rallies the fighting spirit of a human group with such impetuosity as a threat to its women and children - to its cradle. The duty of protecting the young by a parent or parents is a very ancient ordinance of Nature, but in the human kind this ordinance is carried out by the whole parental group. The cradle is also safeguarded by group opinion, which regards every act that legitimately fills the cradle as good, and therefore a virtue, while every form of conduct which tends to make the cradle empty as bad, and therefore a vice."
"Have millions of Americans suddenly lost interest in television?
"If the numbers from ratings provider Nielsen Media Research are to be believed millions of viewers have stopped watching TV this fall in favor of other pursuits, like computer on-line services. According to Nielsen, there are 1.2 million fewer 18-to-34-year-olds watching prime time in any given minute this season than a year ago.
"As a result, the six commercial-broadcast networks could wind up owing advertisers $100 million in airtime in the fourth quarter alone for not delivering the viewership they had pledged."
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